2016 : Can kaolin function as source of alumina in the synthesis of ZSM-5 without an organic template using a seeding technique

Prof. Dr. Taslim Ersam MS.


ZSM-5 has been successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method using Indonesian Bangka kaolin as the aluminium source without an organic template and preactivation by calcination utilizing silicalite and ZSM-5 seedings. There are three parameters that made kaolin a very suitable aluminium source in the synthesis of ZSM-5 by using this method. The first parameter was the presence of types of seeds (silicalite and ZSM-5). Secondly, the molar ratio of Si/Al was in the range of 40–60. Thirdly, the concentrations of NaOH were varied from 6 to 12 mol with 1800 mol water. Interestingly, the use of silicalite seed produced pure ZSM-5 zeolite, whereas analcime and mordenite appeared as side products when ZSM-5 was used as the seed. The above effects can be illustrated by the following mechanism. Kaolin was fully dissolved in the basic mixture solution containing concentrated NaOH and silica sols, and followed by the crystallization in the presence of seeds (silicalite and ZSM-5). The mechanism was postulated on the basis of XRF, XRD, 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR analyses.