2020 : SUITABILITY OF URBAN PARK BASED ON NEIGHBOURHOOD ACCESSIBILITY FOR THE SUSTAINABLE LANDUSE DEVELOPMENT
Hepi Hapsari Handayani ST.,M.Sc.,Ph.D
Udiana Wahyu Deviantari ST., MT.
Population growth during the 20th century and rapid urbanization have caused serious environmental issues. Therefore, urban areas across the world face threats from environmental degradation, which affects green space as a protector of environmental quality and sustainability. The loss of green space will endanger the urban ecosystem and climate conditions in general. Urban green space (UGS) in terms of urban park provides considerable benefits for city dwellers by supplying clean air, water and soil, and a balanced natural environment. Urban park is recognized as an important health factor contributing to usersâ€™ recuperation from physical and mental stress. Recently, many researchers have conducted the study of urban park indicator, focusing on perceived restorative potential and satisfaction factors. Several studies have demonstrated the importance and the benefits of urban park at the neighborhood level. Ease of access to the outdoors and the proximity of larger open spaces are proven to be the strongest predictors of neighborhood satisfaction.
The new paradigm of â€œgreen healthâ€?to achieve environmental benefits has gained a great concern owing to the increased availability of Geographical Information System (GIS), which enables the objective measurement of urban park indicators. Moreover, GIS-based analysis has been used to evaluate the accessibility of UGS at a hierarchical level, considering influences such as locality, age, gender, and income. GIS based on Land Suitability Analysis (LSA) is the process of establishing the suitability of given land site for specific type of use and their level of suitability. Numerous studies have conducted the LSA based on geospatial approach including Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing (RS). However, there have been few studies in evaluating the site suitability of potential urban park based on the combination of neighbourhood and site characteristics. The neighbourhood characteristics are needed to facilitate the people living in surrounding the potential site who are expected frequently visiting and using the park. The site characteristics generally employ the land properties. Land properties including such factors, i.e. size, shape, history, land value have been used in defining the land suitability of park. Land properties, accessibility, and socio-economic variables are used to evaluate the suitability of potential park. The accessibility in their study is determined by measuring the proximity of the park to road. However, those previous studies did not integrate land properties in regard to site characteristics, or potential accessibility and environment in the regard of the neighbourhood characteristics. In their studies, population was not considered as a variable. Moreover, the potential accessibility did not consider the proximity of each aggregated population unit to potential site.
Hence, this study proposes the use of the combination of site and neighbourhood characteristics as the criteria of the site suitability of potential urban park to achieve the sustainable development. Those characteristics produce balanced view among economic, environmental, and social values. The site characteristics propose land properties including physical and economic condition. The neighbourhood characteristics consist of potential accessibility and surrounding environment aspects. The potential accessibility means the degree of that potential site can be reached by people. The potential accessibility promote in this study by measuring proximity of each built-up pixel to the potential site using walking distance. The potential accessibility also considers the volume of potential user in the regard of building occupancy (BO) which is represented by built-up volume as the aggregated population of geographical unit. Herein, this study hypothesizes that the neighbourhood with high BO should have higher suitability of potential urban park. Environment accounts for conditional feelings of the neighbourhood of potential urban park. The environment presenting the neighbourhood condition includes safety, quietness, and family incomes as the socio-economic factors. However, to measure the satisfaction of the dwellers is more challenging since it relates to the individual perception and tends to be subjective. Herein, this study proposes an index to assess the potential satisfaction of urban park perceived by the dwellers as urban park user. This approach, namely Potential Satisfaction of Urban Index (PSPI) includes four parameters: area, shape, proximity, and building occupancy. The evaluation based on environment, accessibility, physical condition and economic condition combined with PSPI is conducted for several case analysis which is selected based on the combination of different site suitability level. The result of case anaysis expected can be used as a reference in the sustainable development through greening program.
Keywords: suitability, urban park, neighbourhood, accessibility, sustainable landuse development