2021 : Anti-hyperlipidemic Potential of The Anthocyanin-rich Medinilla speciosa Blume Based on Physiological and Histological Responses in Hyperlipidemic Mice
Noor Nailis Saadah S.Si., M.Sc.
High lipid diet causes hyperlipidemia, a condition of lipid metabolism disorders characterized by an increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and a decrease in HDL. Hyperlipidemia stimulate leukocytes to produce ROS thereby increasing LDL oxidation. Oxidized LDL will be phagocytosed and form atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerosis can change the structure and function of the artery walls, especially the lining of the intima. Hyperlipidemia also cause hepatocyte cell damage in the presence of fatty infiltration to the liver. This damage can be observed microscopically by making histological observations. Atherosclerosis triggers cardiovascular diseases such as coronary heart disease which is one of the health problems in society and the leading cause of death worldwide with a prevalence of 48%.
Therefore, it is necessary to modulate the dysregulation of lipid metabolism, one of which is the administration of Medinilla speciosa extract that has a high anthocyanin content. Anthocyanins have several roles, including as antioxidants and stabilize atherosclerotic plaques. Anthocyanins belonging to a large group of flavonoid compounds are able to chelate free radicals by donating a hydrogen atom or by transferring a single electron. Flavonoid compounds can also inhibit the action of the HMG-CoA reductase, an important enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthesis. This study aims to determine the anti-hyperlipidemic potential of M. speciosa extract based on physiological and histological responses in hyperlipidemic mice.
The experimental design used in this study was a completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments: control, hyperlipidemia, hyperlipidemia which were given the M. speciosa extract 100 mg/kg BW and 200 mg/kgBW, with 5 individual replications. Mice were made hyperlipidemia by given a mixture of quail egg yolk and pork oil (2: 1) orally as much as 1% body weight (BW) of mice for 4 weeks. The total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and TG levels were measured with the DiaSysÂ® kit, Germany. Aortic and liver histology of mice were prepared using the Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining method, then the histological structure was observed microscopically and assessed semi quantitatively. The scoring data of the aortic and liver histology observations of mice (M. musculus) were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis.
The results showed that M. speciosa extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg BW was better at reducing triglyceride levels, LDL and atherogenic index. Aortic histological scoring data show that the treatment of M. speciosa extracts was able to repair the initial damage from endothelial dysfunction so that it approached the control. The M. speciosa extract is also able to repair liver damage that occurs as a result of hyperlipid induction.