Semin : Application of Natural Gas for
Internal Combustion Engines
It is well known that the fossil-fuel reserves in the world are diminishing at an alarming rate
and a lack of crude oil is expected at the early decades of this century (Aslam et al., 2006).
Gasoline and diesel fuel becomes scarce and most expensive (Catania et al., 2004).
Alternative fuel becomes more conventional fuel in the coming decades for internalcombustion engines. Nowadays, the alternative fuel has been growing due to concerns that
the reserves of fossil fuel all over the area are limited. Furthermore, the world energy crisis
made the fossil-fuel price increases.
Natural Gas (NG) has been found in various locations in oil and gas bearing sands strata
located at different depths below the earth surface (Catania et al., 2004). NG is a gaseous
form of NG was compressed. It has been recognized as one of the promising alternative
fuels due to its significant benefits compared to gasoline fuel and diesel fuel. These include
reduced fuel cost, cleaner exhaust gas emissions and higher octane number. Therefore, the
numbers of engine vehicles powered by NG were growing rapidly (Poulton, 1994;
Pischinger, 2003). NG is safer than gasoline in many respects (Cho and He, 2007; Ganesan,
1999; Kowalewicz, 1984). The ignition temperature of NG is higher than gasoline fuel and
diesel fuel. Additionally, NG lighter than air and dissipate upward rapidly. Gasoline fuel
and diesel fuel will pool on the ground, increasing the risk of fire. NG is nontoxic and will
not contaminate groundwater if failed. Advanced NG engines undertake significant
advantages over the conventional gasoline engine and diesel engine (Kato et al., 1999). NG is
a commonly available type of fossil energy. However, the investigation of applying NG as
an alternative fuel in engines will be a beneficial activity, because the liquid fossil fuels will
be finished and will become scarce and expensive (Catania, 2004; Sera, 2003). NG has some
advantages compared to gasoline and diesel from the environmental perspective. It is a
cleaner fuel than either gasoline or diesel as far as emissions are concerned. NG is
considered to be an environmentally clean alternative to those fuels (Cho and He, 2007; Kato
et al., 1999; Shashikantha and Parikh, 1999; Wayne, 1998). Advantages of NG as a fuel its
octane numbers are extraordinarily suitable for spark ignition (SI) engines. NG engine can
be operated in high compression ratio (Ganesan, 1999).