Setiyo Gunawan, Kuswandi, Hakun Wirawasista Aparamarta, Arief Widjaja : The utilization of Xylocarpus moluccensis seed oil as biodiesel feedstock in Indonesia
Setiyo Gunawan S.T., Ph.D
Hakun Wirawasista Aparamarta S.T, M.MT
Prof.Dr.Ir. Arief Widjaja M.Eng.
Industrial Crops and Products
Biodiesel; Esterification; Transesterification; Xylocarpus moluccensis seed oils
In this study, the production of biodiesel from Xylocarpus moluccensis seed oil by esterification followed directly by transesterfication without employing a separation step was investigated. The composition of X. moluccensis seed oil was triacylglycerols (81.23%), diacylglycerols (3.70%), monoacylglycerols (2.26%), free fatty acids (10.5%), and wax esters and gums (1.23%). Our results suggest that FAME yield (97%) was obtained under the following operation conditions: methanol to rice bran ratio of 2 ml/g, sulfuric acid concentration in methanol of 1% (v/v) and reaction time of 20 min, an esterification operated on X. moluccensis seed oils could reduce FFA contents from 10% to 1.5%. Then, it was subjected to a second step reaction by adding potassium hydroxide of 0.3% and allowing to react for another 15 min. It was found that the content of saturated fatty acids in this study were 22%. This means that the biodiesel produced from X. moluccensis seed oil has better cold flow properties, compared to that obtained while using palm oil.