Setiyo Gunawan, Kuswandi, Hakun Wirawasista Aparamarta, Arief Widjaja : The utilization of Xylocarpus moluccensis seed oil as biodiesel feedstock in Indonesia

Setiyo Gunawan S.T., Ph.D
Dr.Ir. Kuswandi DEA
Hakun Wirawasista Aparamarta S.T, M.MT
Prof.Dr.Ir. Arief Widjaja M.Eng.



Published in

Industrial Crops and Products

External link


Jurnal Internasional


Biodiesel; Esterification; Transesterification; Xylocarpus moluccensis seed oils


In this study, the production of biodiesel from Xylocarpus moluccensis seed oil by esterification followed directly by transesterfication without employing a separation step was investigated. The composition of X. moluccensis seed oil was triacylglycerols (81.23%), diacylglycerols (3.70%), monoacylglycerols (2.26%), free fatty acids (10.5%), and wax esters and gums (1.23%). Our results suggest that FAME yield (97%) was obtained under the following operation conditions: methanol to rice bran ratio of 2 ml/g, sulfuric acid concentration in methanol of 1% (v/v) and reaction time of 20 min, an esterification operated on X. moluccensis seed oils could reduce FFA contents from 10% to 1.5%. Then, it was subjected to a second step reaction by adding potassium hydroxide of 0.3% and allowing to react for another 15 min. It was found that the content of saturated fatty acids in this study were 22%. This means that the biodiesel produced from X. moluccensis seed oil has better cold flow properties, compared to that obtained while using palm oil.