Setiyo Gunawan : Isolation of phthalic acid ester from calophyllum inophyllum oil

Setiyo Gunawan S.T., Ph.D



Published in

International Conference on Natural Dyes (ICND) on Future Leader, Nature and Local Culture for Sustainable Development


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Seminar Internasional


Calophyllum inophyllum, phthalic acid ester, GC-MS, non-edible oil197603232002121001 Setiyo Gunawan ST., Ph.D


Calophyllum inophyllum has been known as non-edible oil. Because of the non-edible nature of its oil, research about Calophyllum inophyllum hitherto only focused on the biodiesel conversion of its oil. Calophyllum inophyllum oil contains dangerous resin that hinders human from consuming it. In this work, we manage to separate the dangerous resin in a methanolic fraction via solvent-solvent extraction. The resin identified is phthalic acid ester (PAE), which is commonly used as additives in polymer industry. This compound is extremely dangerous and it may cause various internal diseases if it is consumed. The oil contains about 1,8% PAE, which is far beyond the threshold value. The isolation of PAE from the oil, pending further research, is expected to convert the non-edible oil into a valuable food supplement. The isolation process of PAE starts with separation of the corresponding compound from the lipid via multistage solvent-solvent extraction using hexane and methanol. The PAE, given its polar nature, should be contained in the methanolic fractions, which is later proven by the GC-MS analysis result. Mass spectra analysis of the first and second methanolic fraction revealed that about 60% and 6% of the solution is PAE, respectively. However, the methanol fractions still contained some fatty acids. The hexane fractions, on the other hand, do not contain the resin. The PAE contained in the methanolic fractions should be further isolated using liquid column chromatography.